“Little industrialization, low agriculture output, low figure of national income and per captia income, very sluggish economic progress, considerable unemployment and underemployment. These are some of the main characteristics of India’s social and economic situation just after independence.” The status of Indian economy was poor, stagnant and backward.
The Indian economy during British Colonial rule was primarily an agricultural economy. Almost 85 percent of the country’s population lived in villages during that period and derived its livelihood directly or indirectly from agriculture. Despite being the major source of livelihood, the agriculture sector continued to experience stagnation and deterioration during British rule.
State of Indian agriculture sector on the eve of independence was as follows:-
1. Weak productive accumulation.
2. Unemployment and underemployment
3. Low levels of production and productivity.
4. Subdivision of landholdings.
Indian agriculture was primitive and stagnant. The main causes of stagnation of agriculture sector was as follows:
1. Land Tenure system
(a) Zamindari system
(b) Mahalwari system and
(c) Ryotwari system
2. Commecialisation of agriculture
3. Partition of the country
Thus, Indian agriculture became backward, stagnant and non-vibrant under the British rule.
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE
1. Pre-dominance of agriculture sector.
2. Growing Regional Variations.
DEMOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE
1. High birth rate and death rate
2. High infant mortality rate
3. Low life expectancy
4. Mass illiteracy.
Cite this article:
Vrinda Sengupta.Agricultural Sector on the Eve of Independence. Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 3(3): July-September, 2012, 376-377.