The aim of this paper is to understand the overall household water use behaviour and activity-wise water use patterns in Aizawl city, Mizoram (India). The study is conducted in Aizawl city among 15 Local Councils out of 83 Local Councils. The number of sample households selected from each of the sample Local Councils are 50 households, thus data was gathered via questionnaire administered to 750 respondents’ mainly female household heads. The water consumption in the study area is far lower than the norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards. Even, in comparison to other major cities in the country, the consumption is also far deficient. The average per capita water consumption is estimated at 46 lpcd. About 38.93 per cent of the households consume water below 40 lpcd, 19.89 per cent consume between 40 lpcd to 50 lpcd, and 41.20 per cent consume water above 50 lpcd. Some household activities, like washing clothes, bathing, use in toilets, and washing dishes and utensils are the most water consuming activities in the City under focus.
Cite this article:
C. Ramhnehzauva. Activity-Wise Residential Water Use Behaviour in Aizawl City, Mizoram, India. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2023;14(1)31-6. doi: 10.52711/2321-5828.2023.00006
C. Ramhnehzauva. Activity-Wise Residential Water Use Behaviour in Aizawl City, Mizoram, India. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2023;14(1)31-6. doi: 10.52711/2321-5828.2023.00006 Available on: https://rjhssonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-14-1-6
1. Bajpai, P. and Bhandari, L., 2001. Ensuring Access to Water in Urban Households. Economic and Political Weekly, 36 (9): pp. 3774-3778.
2. Birmingham, M.E., Lee, L.A. and Ntakibirora, M., 1997. A Household Survey of Dysentery in Burundi: Implications for the Current Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of World Health Organisation, 75 (1): pp. 45-53.
3. BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards), 1993. IS. 1172-1993, Code of Basic Requirements for Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation. Publication of Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
4. Brooks, D.B. and Peters, R., 1988. Water: The Potential for Demand Management in Canada. Science Council of Canada Discussion Paper, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
5. Cairncross, S., 1990. Water Supply and the Urban Poor. In The Poor Die Young, S. Cairncross, J.E. Hardoy and D. Satterthwaite (eds.). Earth scan Publications Ltd., London, U.K. pp. 109-126.
6. Cairncross, S. and Feachem, R., 1993. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics (2nd edition). John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
7. Carter, R.C., Tyrrel, S.F. and Howsam, P., 1997. The Impact and Sustainability of Sater and Sanitation Programmes in Developing Countries. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 13: pp. 292-296.
8. Clarke, R., 1993. Water: The International Crisis. United Nations, USA.
9. Curtis, V., Cairncross, S. and Yonli, R., 2000. Domestic Hygiene and Diarrhoea: Pin Pointing the Problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 5(1): pp. 22-32.
10. Cvjetanovic, B., 1986. Health Effects and Impacts of Water Supply and Sanitation. World Health Statistics, 39: pp. 105-l17.
11. Esrey, S., 1996. Water, Waste and Well-Being: A Multi-Country Study. American International Journal of Epidemiology, 143(6): pp. 608-623.
12. Esrey, S.A. and Habicht, J.P., 1986. Epidemiological Evidence for Health Benefits from Improved Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries. Epidemiological Reviews, 8: pp. 117-128.
13. Esrey, S.A., Feachem, R.G. and Hughes, J.M., 1985. Interventions for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Among Young Children: Improving Water Supplies and Excreta Disposal Facilities, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 63 (4): pp. 757-772.
14. Esrey, S.A., Potash, J.B., Roberts, L. and Shiff, C., 1991. Effects of Improved Water Supply and Sanitation on Ascariasis, Diarrhoea, Dracunculiasis, Hookworm Infection, Schistosomiasis, and Trachoma. Bulletin World Health Organisation 69(5): pp. 609-621.
15. Falkenmark, M., 1991. Approaching the Ultimate Constraint: Water Short Third World Countries at a Fatal Crossroad. Study Week on Resources and Population. Pontifical Academy, Vatican City.
16. Gilman, R.H., Marquis, G.S. and Ventura, G., 1993. Water Cost and Availability: Key Determinants of Family Hygiene in a Peruvian Shantytown. American Journal of Public Health, 839(1): pp. 1554-1558.
17. Gleick, P.H., 1996. Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs. Water International, 21(2): pp. 83-92.
18. GoI (Government of India), 1997. Ninth Five -Year Plan 1997-2002 - Volume II. Planning Commission, New Delhi.
19. GoI (Government of India), 2002. Tenth Five -Year Plan 2002-2007 - Volume II. Planning Commission, New Delhi.
20. Gorter, A.C., Sandiford, P., Smith, G.D. and Pauw, J.P., 1991. Water Supply, Sanitation and Diarrhoeal Disease in Nicaragua: Results from a Case-Control Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20(2): pp. 527-533.
21. Herbert, J., 1985. Effects of Components of Sanitation on Nutritional Status: Findings from South Indian Settlements. International Journal of Epidemiology, 14(1): pp. 143-151.
22. Howard, G. and Bartram, J., 2003. Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. WHO Report, World Health Organization, Geneva. pp. 7-11.
23. Inocencio, A.B., Padilla, J.E. and Javier, E.P., 1999. Determination of Basic Household Water Requirements. Discussion Paper Series No. 99-02 (Revised). The Research Information Staff, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Philippines. pp. 4-5.
24. Kalbermatten, J.M., Julius, D.S., Gunnerson, C.G. and Mara, D.D., 1982. Appropriate Sanitation Alternatives: A Technical and Economic Appraisal and A Planning and Design Manual. World Bank Studies in Water Supply and Sanitation 1 and II. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, U.S.A.
25. Kirchhoff, L.V., McLelland, K.E., Pinho, D.M.C., 1985. Feasibility and Efficacy of in Home Water Chlorination in Rural North-Eastern Brazil. Journal of Hygiene, 94(2): pp. 173-180.
26. Kirke, J. and Arthur, J., 1984. Water Supply Issues: Basic Needs and the Urban Poor. Biddles Ltd. Guildford, Surrey, England.
27. NAS (National Academy of Sciences), 1977. Drinking Water and Health, National. Academy Press, Washington, DC.
28. NRC (National Research Council), 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
29. NSSO (National Sample Survey Organisation), 1999. Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in India. National Sample Survey Organisation, 54th Round, Report No. 449. Government of India, New Delhi.
30. Prost, A. and Negrel, A.D., 1989. Water, Trachoma, and Conjunctivitis. Bulletin World Health Organisation, 67(1): pp. 9-18.
31. Roth, E.M., 1968. Water: Compendium of Human Responses to the Aerospace Environment. In Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, E.M. Roth (ed.). Albuquerque, NM, U.S.A.
32. SPHERE Project, 2002. Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. OXFAM Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
33. Stanton, B.F. and Clemens, J.D., 1987. An Education Intervention for Altering Water Sanitation Behavior to Reduce Childhood Diarrhea in Urban Bangladesh II: A Randomised Trial to Assess the Impact of Intervention on Hygienic Behaviors and Rates of Diarrhea. American Journal of Epidemiology, 125(2): pp. 292 301.
34. US-EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 1976. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA-570/ 12. g-76-003. Washington, DC.
35. USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development), 1982. Domestic Water and Sanitation. PPC Policy Paper, Washington. p. 24.
36. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), 1969. The Year Book of Agriculture, 1995: Water. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, Calcutta.
37. Van der Hoek, W., Feenstar, S.G. and Konradsen, F., 2002. Availability of Irrigation Water for Domestic Use in Pakistan: Its Impact on Prevalence of Diarrhoea and Nutiritional Status of Children. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 20(1): pp. 77-84.
38. Vander Slice, J. and Briscoe, J., 1995. Environmental Interventions in Developing Countries: Interactions and Their Implications. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141(2): pp. 135-141.
39. Vinograd, S.P., 1966. Medical Aspects of a Orbiting Research Laboratory, Space Medicine. Advisory Group Study, NASA-SP-86. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Washington, DC.
40. WELL, 1998. Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes. WEDC, Loughborough, UK.
41. White, G.F., Bradley, D.J. and White, A.U., 1972. Drawers of Water: Domestic Water Use in East Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
42. WHO (World Health Organization), 1971. International Standards for Drinking Water. 3rd Edition. World Health Organization, Geneva.
43. WHO (World Health Organization), 1972. Health Hazards of the Human Environment. World Health Organization, Geneva.
44. WHO (World Health Organisation), 1993. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Volume 1. Recommendation, 2nd Edition. World Health Organisation. Geneva, Switzerland.
45. WHO (World Health Organisation), 2002. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, World Health Report 2002. World Health Organization, Geneva.
46. WHO (World Health Organisation), 2003. Chloride in Drinking-Water. Background Document for Preparation of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. World Health Organisation. Geneva, Switzerland.
47. World Bank, 2002. New Designs for Water and Sanitation Transactions: Making Private Sector Participation Work for the Poor. Water Sanitation Programme. Washington, DC.