Cropping Intensity and Agricultural Efficiency Patterns in North- Eastern Region of Chhattisgarh: A Geographical Study

 

Dr. (Smt.) Uma Gole1*, Shivnath Ekka2

1Professor, S.O.S in Geography, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

2Research Scholar, S.O.S in Geography, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

*Corresponding Author Email:  Umagole@rediffmail.com, S.sanjivan5@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Agriculture is the basic function for economy, settlement, and socio-cultural activities in North Eastern Region of Chhattisgarh. From the ancient to the modern period, the dignity of agriculture has remained unchanged. The agriculture of the state is depends on monsoon for which the farmers have to suffer damage of crops due to irregular and uncertain rainfall pattern. Crop productivity is basically related to irrigation, despite all efforts, the pure irrigated area from all sources of total agricultural land is 11.3%, which is the cause of high land, pat region and plateau. Through analysis, it is known that the distribution of tehsil wise crop intensity and agricultural efficiency in the state is uneven. That is why it is necessary to increase the crop intensity due to increasing population and increasing land pressure. Since agricultural efficiency is a profound relationship with agricultural productivity. So in addition to the physical background, the crop intensity and agricultural efficiency of the state can be increased through the addition of HYV seeds, fertilizers, mechanization, farming training, mixed crop system, land improvement etc. At present it is possible to increase the area irrigated by canal, tube well, well, pond, reservoirs and rivers, but the study area is prevalent from dense forests and primitive tribes. Primitive tribes still adopt traditional farming methods so that production is relatively low.

 

KEYWORDS: Land use, crop pattern, crop Intensity and crop efficiency

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

North Eastern Region of Chhattisgarh being based on the tropical monsoon climate, due to this irregularities and uncertainty of the rain has adverse effects on production, which also affects the HYV seeds, fertilizers and agricultural equipment and the sources of irrigation. The region having Excess of tropical deciduous vegetation, the Pat and plateaus region found in the state. The red yellow and laterite soil broadly distributed in the region which is comes under infertile soil category, due to the uncertainty of rainfall, 10.38 percent of the total area is under the real area. Area 11.23 of the area is irrigated, while the highest irrigated area is the highest of 6.5 the part is in Raigarh district which is under the Mahanadi River and Mand par area.

 

Agriculture is of particular importance in human economies. Agricultural productivity under farming is the measure of agricultural efficiency. It is related to the production of per hectare which is the link between the relationship between the physical and the human work and the interconnection. Agricultural efficiency reveals the maximum yield of any land in natural and cultural environments. Crop Intensification The crop frequency is the area where crops are produced in a year on a certain agricultural area, because the crop intensification of the area is special because the study area Due to being more than tribal and primitive tribes, traditional agriculture has been adopted.

 

Keeping these facts in mind, the researcher has tried to compute the crop intensity index and agricultural efficiency index of crops produced by the primitive tribe “hill Korwa” of the remote area of North-East of Chhattisgarh.

 

STUDY AREA:

Raigarh, Jashpur, Surguja and Balrampur districts comes under the area of North Eastern Chhattisgarh, which extent between 22028’ to 21011’ north latitude and 82031’ to 83047’ east longitude. The total geographical area of the state is 28656 sq. km, which is 21.2 percent of the geographical area of Chhattisgarh region. North eastern Chhattisgarh is surrounded by Uttar Pradesh in the north of the study area, Jharkhand in the north-eastern boundary, Odisha in the south east and Korba, Janjgir - Champa and Mahasamund districts of the state in the south and Surajpur district in the northwest. Maximum height of the state is Gaurlata 1225 meters above sea level. In the study area, the average annual rainfall of 92.19 centimetres and the maximum average annual temperature is 31.10C while the minimum temperature at 18.5 0Celsius and the National Highway 43 passes through the area. According to the 2011 census, the total population of the state is 3916496 which are 15.3 percent of the total population of Chhattisgarh state. The Sex ratio is 988 whereas the average density of population is 153 people per square kilometre. The Mahanadi and The Ganga drainage system flow in this Region. The percentage of tribals in the study area is 50.48.     

 

OBJECTIVE:

1.         Find the crop pattern of all produced crops (Rabi / Kharif) in the study area.

2.         Calculate the Crop Intensity and Agricultural efficiency in the study area.

3.         Analyse the regional imbalances by knowing the level of crop intensity and agricultural efficiency.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

1.         Crop Intensity is relatively high in the size of small holdings.

2.         In the area of irrigation facilities, relatively high crop production.

 

SOURCES OF DATA:

The study presented is based on secondary data, the compilation of the secondary data for the calculation of the study is obtained from the statistical department and the land   Records office and related data from deputy director Raigarh, Jashpur, Surguja and Balrampur districts. Agricultural data have been taken for the year 2015, 2016 and 2017 and the average data for all three years has been used for calculation.

 

METHODOLOGY:

The entire tehils are the unit of study in the Region. There are 30 tehsils in this area. Analysis the agriculture intensity by B.B. Singh (1979) and for agriculture efficiency by S.S. Bhatiya (1967) methods used. The result was presented by choropleth map with the help of ArcGIS (10.3) software.

 

CROP INTENSITY:

In some areas, the land produced more than one crop within a year.  In other words frequency of crops cultivated in the cropping year is known as crop intensity. The net agricultural land, the sum of the two-crop season and multi crop field is called the total area of the region. In any area, the area of the region is more than the agricultural sector; the amount of crop intensification is shown (Gautam, 2015). In the North Eastern region of Chhattisgarh, due to the variation of pearl conditions, in most parts 1 to 1 year, a thin product is produced.

 

The crop intensive index is also an index of agricultural density. The area of crops also reveals the increase in the area, the more the crop will be, the higher the use of agricultural land.

 

                                         Total cropped area

Crop intensity index=---------------------------------×100

                                        Net cultivated area

 

For the calculation of the crop intensity of the state, the use of the appropriate formulas produced by B.B. Singh on the basis of the crop intensity index, the quartile deviation class interval method used in the study area has been classified in the field of crop intensity in the regional levels at the high, medium, low and very low. (Table-1).

 

(A)     High crop intensity index:

High crop intensity index (>124.06) in the state was received in Rajpur and Baramkela tehsils. The main reason is fertile plain area of the tahsil. The use of irrigation facilities is more utilized; there is a lack of such uninhabited area and forest area, due to the influence of fertile soil from the Mahan and Laat River (Ganges and Mahanadi drainage system). The pure irrigated area is 19,755 hectares (20.7%) which is relatively high in other areas, the same is about two - crop area 16,842 hectares (17.6%) is so it was obtained highest intensity index during the analysis.

 

Table – 1. North-east Chhattisgarh: crop intensity index

S.N.

Name of Tehsil

Total agriculture land

Net cultivated area

Intensity index

1

Rajpur

30645

23293

131.6

2

Baramkela

41520

32030

129.6

3

Ambikapur

35055

28575

122.7

4

Pusaur

33656

27637

121.8

5

Shankargarh

20894

17532

119.2

6

Lundra

33560

28684

117

7

Wadrafnagar

35866

30707

116.8

8

Lakhanpur

29097

25035

116.2

9

Ramchandrapur

31700

27298

116.1

10

Balrampur

25486

21985

115.9

11

Sarangarh

26938

23291

115.7

12

Raigarh

26803

23982

111.8

13

Batouli

20064

17967

111.7

14

Udaypur

18477

16623

111.2

15

Mainpat

19937

18003

110.7

16

Bagicha

54245

49098

110.5

17

Lailunga

34429

31462

109.4

18

Sitapur

26414

24278

108.8

19

Pathalgaon

53723

49799

107.9

20

Kharsiya

26175

24271

107.8

21

Dharamjaigarh

49779

46194

107.8

22

Gharghoda

22814

21401

106.6

23

Manora

25965

24406

106.4

24

Kusmi

34144

32245

105.9

25

Kansabel

25494

24511

104

26

Tamnar

24896

24036

103.6

27

Farsabahar

29172

28295

103.1

28

Duldula

16987

16601

102.3

29

Kunkuri

26939

26329

102.3

30

Jashpur

22964

22648

101.4

Source: calculate by author, 2018

 

Table -2. North-east Chhattisgarh crop intensity pattern

S.N.

Intensity Index

Intensity Level

No. of Tehsil

Tehsil

1

>124.06

High

2

Rajpur, Baramkela

2

116.6-124.05

Medium

5

Ambikapur, Pusaur, Shankargarh, Lundra, Wadrafnagar

3

108.16-116.05

Low

10

Lakhanpur, Ramchandrapur, Balrampur, Sarangarh,

Raigarh,

Batouli,

Udaypur, Mainpat,

Bagicha,

Lailunga

4

<108.95

Very low

13

Sitapur, Pathalgaon, Kharsiya, Dharamjaigarh, Gharghoda, Manora, 

Kusmi,

Kansabel, Tamnar, Farsabahar, Duldula,

Kunkuri,

Jashpur

Source: calculate by author, 2018

(2)  Medium Crop Intensity Index:

In the study area, the medium crop intensity index in 5 tehsils such as Ambikapur, Pusaur, Shankargarh, Lundra and Wadrafnagar. Paddy kharif crops are important crops in the monsoon based state, the lack of irrigation facilities being relatively high due to the highland, pat and plateau area, the middle crop intensity index is under this area.

 

(3)  Low Crop Intensity Index:

Under the low Crop Intensity index, Lakhanpur, Ramachandrapur, Balrampur, Sarangarh, Raigarh, Batauli, Udaipur, Mainpat, Bagicha, and Lailunga tehsil of this Region. The main reason is lack of awareness among people in this area, negligible use of high yield seed species. The use of fertilizers and agricultural innovation is negligible, as a result, under this low crop intensity index.

 

(4)  Very Low Crop Intensity Index:

Under Very low crop intensity index there are 13 tehsil Sitapur, Pathalgaon, Kharsiya, Dharamjaigarh, Manora, Kusmi, Kansabel, Tamnar, Farsabahar, Duldula, Kunkuri and Jashpur. The area has more plateau region and lack of irrigation facilities, red yellow and laterite soil. The same area is relatively high; due to the combined effect of the low crop intensity index is displayed.

 

Agricultural Efficiency:

Agricultural efficiency is Physical and cultural environment reveals the maximum yield of any land. Agriculture efficiency is a result of the organized work and influence of various functions of physical, social and economic activity, the quantity of productivity and production of any area increases, depending on the following facts:-

1. Regional unit production

2. Per labour unit of production

3. Production and cost ratio and profit from agriculture

4. Yield per person

 

Evaluation of agricultural efficiency method given by so many geographers and attempted to calculate on the basis of the yield data of different crops, which are given by Candel (1935), Stamp (1958), Shafi (1960), Deshpande and Sapre (1964) etc.

 

S.S Bhatia (1967) used the productivity index to determine the productivity of agricultural efficiency for the study. Yield index calculate is based on production rate of crops and area. The formula calculated by the yield index is :-

                      YC

I Ya=--------------------------- ×100

                        Yr

Where,

IYa = ‘a’ Harvest yield index

YC = ‘a’ Yield of hectare of the crop

Yr = ‘a’ Total area of the crop per hectare yield

 

The productivity index was determined by multiplying the percentage of each crop of the yield index indices. The formula has been used as:-

 

            IYaca+IYbcb+⋯⋯⋯⋯IYnCn

Ei=----------------------------------------------------

               Ca+cb⋯⋯⋯Cn

 

Where,  

Ei = Agricultural efficiency index

IYa, IYb,……….IYc = Yield index of different breed

Ca,Cb,………….Cn = Percentage from the area under total crops of the area under various crops

 

The calculation of agricultural efficiency in the study areais calculated by using the above mentioned formula given by Bhatiya. North Eastern part of Chhattisgarh (Raigarh, Jashpur, Sarguja and Balrampur) seven major crops Paddy, Wheat maize, Gram, Urad, Til and Rai, mustard per hectare yield Data of these tehsil received by Deputy Director Agriculture, Department land Records of District Raigarh, Jashpur, Sarguja and Balrampur 2015-16. (Table -4) Based on the calculated data and using quartile deviation class interval method the study area has been classified into four level of agricultural efficiency region such as High, Medium, Low and Very low.

 

(A)  High agricultural efficiency index:

Under High agricultural efficiency in the state are mainly Bagicha and Farsabahar tehsil. The main reason is the innovation for agriculture adopt in all the plains area of this region. The irrigation facilities due to the flow of Kanhar rivers and the awareness of of farmers for cultivation of different crops in the fields is main reason of high agricultural efficiency in both tahsils.

 

(B)  Medium agricultural efficiency index:

16 tehsils under the medium agricultural efficiency index in the study area such as Sitapur, Shankargarh, Kusmi, Batauli, Rajpur, Lundra, Wadrafnagar, Ambikapur, Ramchandrapur, Balrampur, Lakhanpur ,Udaipur, Manpat, Pathalgaon, Manora and Duldula is one of the main reasons for high land text and plateau area, where 38.5 percent wild area is there, point of land is relatively high, under medium agricultural efficiency.

 


 

Table – 3. North-East Chhattisgarh: Crop Efficiency Index

S.N.

Tehsil

Crop Efficiency Index

S.N.

Tehsil

Crop Efficiency Index

1

Bagicha

132.49

16

Pathalgaon

92.55

2

Farsabahar

125.61

17

Manora

91.29

3

Sitapur

105.87

18

Duldula

82.38

4

Lakhanpur

103.4

19

Kunkuri

79.42

5

Shankargarh

103.33

20

Jashpur

76.22

6

Kusmi

99.85

21

Kansabel

51.82

7

Batauli

99.71

22

Dharamjaygarh

50.97

8

Rajpur

99.31

23

Gharghoda

50.81

9

Lundra

98.62

24

Lailunga

50.81

10

Wadrafnagar

98.61

25

Pusaur

49.1

11

Ambikapur

98.58

26

Tamnar

48.94

12

Ramchandrapur

98.18

27

Baramkela

48.65

13

Balrampur

98.06

28

Raigarh

48.54

14

Udaypur

97.76

29

Kharsiya

48.53

15

Mainpat

92.85

30

Sarangarh

48.35

Source: computed by author.2018

 

Table – 4. North-East Chhattisgarh: Crop Efficiency Pattern

S.N.

Crop Efficiency Index

Efficiency Level

 No. of Tehsil

Tehsil

1

>111.456

High

02

Bagicha, Farsabahar

2

90.43-111.455

Medium

16

Sitapur, Lakhanpur, Shankargarh, kusmi, Batauli, Rajpur, Lundra, Wadrafnagar, Ambikapur, Ramchandrapur,Balrampur,Udaypur,Mainpat,

Pathalgaon, Manora, Duldula

3

69.386-90.420

Low

03

Kunkuri,Jashpur,Kansabel

4

<69.386

Very low

09

Dharamjaigarh,Gharghoda,Lailunga, Pusaur, Tamnar,Baramkela,Raigarh, Kharsiya, Sarangarh

 

 


 

 

 

 

 


FIG.NO.1                                                                                                         FIG.NO.2

 

 

 


(c)  Low agricultural efficiency index:

Under the low agricultural efficiency of the region Kunkuri, Jashpur, and Kansabel tehsil is part of this. Jashpur is a part of plateau region as well as the headquarters of the district, while the Kunkuri and Kansabel is relatively high population density. Lack of availability of irrigation facility is barrier for the agriculture development. So this area comes under low agricultural efficiency index.

 

(4)  Very Low agricultural efficiency index:

Nine tehsils comes under the very low agricultural efficiency index which Dharamajaigarh, Gharghoda, Lailunga, Pusaur, Tamnar, Baramkela, Raigarh, Kharsia and Sarangarh will take place. The density of population is 219 per square km. and development of urbanisation and industrialisation is the major cause of degradation of agricultural land.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

The study area is based on monsoon for rainfall and lack of irrigation projects due to uneven relief, Imbalance in crop intensity and agricultural efficiency index. There is an increase in the population due to higher crop intensity. The plain area has received 7.1 percent irrigation from canals and tube well which is high as compared to the text and plateau parts in the study area. It is clear from the analysis that area has lack of agricultural efficiency.  The highly efficient tehsil is Bagicha and Farsabahar and very low efficiency found in all nine Tehsil of raigarh district due to its urbanisation and Industrialisation.

 

For the development of agricultural efficiency and crop intensity need more medium of Irrigation, fertiliser usage, increase in agricultural machinery is essential for high Agriculture productivity and high intensity can be the possible. Thus increase in production of per hectare.

 

REFERENCES:

1.          Gautam, Alka, 2015, Agriculture Geography, Sharada Pustak Bhawan,Allahabad.

2.          Gole, Uma, 2008, Agriculture Intensity and Agricultural Efficiency, the Social Profile, Vo.10, Pp.9-16.

3.          Kumar, Rajendra and N.R. Kaswan, 2015, Changing Crop Intensity in Ganganagar and Hanumangarh District (A Study of Ganganagar and Hanumangarh), Uttar Pradesh Bhaugolik Patrika, Kanpur, Vol-20, Pp63-681.

4.          Kalwar, Nandkishor Sumanchand, 1994, Socio-Economic Geography, Rajathan, Pointer Publisher Jaipur.

5.          Shafi, M., 1960, Measurement of Agricultural Efficiency in U.P., Eco. Geography,36,296-305.

6.          Singh, Jasbir, 1984, Agricultural Geography, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co., New Delhi.

7.          Sharma,Sureshchandra And Et.Al,1998,Agricultural Productivity Level And Regional Imbalance:Gandak Samadesh Project Area (U.P.) A Symbolic Study, Uttar Bharat Bhugol Patrika, Gorakhpur,Vol-34,No-1and2, June –December,Pp.33-421.

8.          Shivhare, J.P. and Kaweri Dabhedkar,2003, Regional pattern of Agricultural Productivity in Raigarh District, Uttar Bharat Bhugol Patrika, Gorakhpur,Vol-39,No-1and2, June –December,Pp.91-96.

9.          Tiwari, R.C. And B.N. Singh, 2016, Agriculture Geography,Pravalika Prakashan.

10.        Tyagi, B.C.,1972, Agricultural Intensity  in Chunar Tehsil, District – Mirzapur, U.P., N.G.J.I., Vol.1 (University  of Nanking ).

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 08.01.2019         Modified on 14.01.2019

Accepted on 04.02.2019      ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2019; 10(2):603-608.  

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5828.2019.00098.6