Economics of Cultivation of Exotic Fruits and Vegetables in Chhattisgarh

 

Rohan Prasad1, Dr. A.K. Vishwakarma2, Dr. Sikha Agrawal3

1Research Scholar, Govt. V.Y.T. P.G. College, Durg, C.G.

2Principal, Govt. College, Bori, C.G.

3Prof. Economics, Govt. V.Y.T. P.G. College, Durg, C.G.

 

ABSTRACT:

In this research an attempt has been made to study the economics of exotic fruits and vegetables in context of Chhattisgarh. With advent of multinational hotel chain in Chhattisgarh the demand for the exotic fruits and vegetables are rising, hence farmers can find a local market for these crops which fetches a healthy wholesale price. The two crops analysed in this study is zucchini which yielded a profit of 2.2Lakhs/Hectare and Green Cantaloupe which yielded a profit of 2. 7 Lakhs/Hectare. The wholesale price of these crops always remains the same as there is no heavy competition among cultivators of these crops. The Crops are in demand while their availability is limited hence a healthy whole sale price is always maintained. The second advantage of these crops is that the farmer reaches the breakeven point with ease, on the contrary conventional crops such as tomato may fetch a price of 1 Rupee per kilogram in the wholesale market hence farmers are not even able to reach the breakeven point.

 

KEY WORDS:† Chhattisgarh, Exotic Fruits and Vegetables and Cost-benefit analysis

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

In India, agricultural activities can be divided into two parts. First food items and second the non-food items. Food items include cultivation of vegetables, fruits, dairy, meat and fishery [1]. Non-Food items include fuel and fuel Wood such as Jatropha and Babool, herbs, ornamental plants, trees and saplings, floriculture etc. The cultivation practices of these items are done mostly to cater the needs of the ever-growing population of the nation as well as for the export of these food items [2]. When it comes to cultivation of food items grains and cereals are mostly cultivated for meeting up nations demand. Vegetables and fruits such as watermelon and muskmelon they are meant for both national as well as international market. Under export category Indian farmers used to grow exotic vegetables such as cherry tomato, dragon fruit, zucchini, Jalapeno, Thai bird chilly and figs [3]. With advent of multinational chain of hotels such as Taj, Hayat and Marriot in came the local demand for these exotic vegetables and suddenly the farmers involved in cultivation of these exotic vegetables find it more profitable to supply to these local consumers as it reduced their packaging and transportation cost.

 

 


The cultivation of exotic fruits and vegetables is not an easier task. Firstly, exotic vegetables and fruits requires the right amount of fertilizer, temperature and water to survive, flourish and fruit. Secondly the seeds as expensive and is not readily available in the market [4]. Thirdly the seeds are heirloom variety mostly, that means their production will be not as that of Hybrid ones and farmers must tediously work for an optimized production. Once the production is harvested it bears good result and profit to the farmers [5].

 

The present study is focused on the State of Chhattisgarh. Farming of exotic fruits and vegetables is catching up in Chhattisgarh due to availability of local demand for the same. The study presents a complete cost-benefit chart for different exotic vegetable that are being cultivated in the Chhattisgarh. The figures presented are average costing and profit, calculated by averaging figures obtained from self-administered survey.

 

METHODOLOGY:

Self-Administered questionnaire was distributed to the farmers practicing cultivation of exotic vegetables and fruits. The following variables were kept under consideration

1.     Vegetable/Fruit Output

2.     Cost of Planting (Seeds)

3.     Fertilizer in Kg

4.     Herbicide in Kg

5.     Insecticide in Kg

6.     Cost of Hired/Family Labour

7.     Cost of Farm implementation/Land Preparation (Tractor, Farm Sloping, Bed preparation)

 

It was assumed that the modern irrigation system is in place and hence cost of first time installation of irrigation system is not included in the analysis.

 

Analysis

Table 1 presents the analysis for Zucchini

Table 1: Cost-Benefit analysis for Zucchini Vegetable Per Hectare

Item

Quantity (Kgs)

Price Per Kg (Rs)

Cost (Rs)

Seeds

3

1800

5400

Land Preparation

 

 

8000

Fertilizer (N)

180

8.40

1519.2

Fertilizer (P)

50

24

1200

Fertilizer (K)

45

17.33

780

Herbicide

6

320

1920

Insecticide

6

450

2700

Labour

6 labour X 90days

120 per labour

64800

Total

 

 

79119

 

Output in Kgs/Hectare

Average Price in Wholesale Market (Rs.)

Total Sales (Rs.)

20000

15

300000

 

Total Sales Per Hectare (Rs.) (x)

Total Cost Per hectare (Rs.) (y)

Profit Per Hectare (Rs.)

(x-y)

300000

79119

220881

 

Zucchini is 120-day crop and starts to harvest from 80-85th day after sowing of seeds. The total sales average around 300000 Rupees and cost per hectare for cultivation averages to 79119 Rupees. Hence a total profit per hectare averages around 220881 Rupees Per Hectare.

 

Table 2 Presents analysis for Green Cantaloupe. Green Cantaloupe is an exotic Variety of Muskmelon. Muskmelon is easy to cultivate and contrary to the belief muskmelon can be cultivated on any soil type.

Table 2: Cost-Benefit analysis for Green Cantaloupe Per Hectare

Item

Quantity (Kgs)

Price Per Kg (Rs)

Cost (Rs)

Seeds

3

3600

10800

Land Preparation

 

 

15000 (includes land preparation and wooden boards needed for fruit maintenance)

Fertilizer (N)

200

8.40

1680

Fertilizer (P)

100

24

2400

Fertilizer (K)

60

17.33

1039

Herbicide

6

320

1920

Insecticide

6

450

2700

Labour

6 labour X 90days

120 per labour

64800

Total

 

 

100339

 

Output in Kgs/Hectare

Average Price in Wholesale Market (Rs.)

Total Sales (Rs.)

13500

3

378000

 

Total Sales Per Hectare (Rs.) (x)

Total Cost Per hectare (Rs.) (y)

Profit Per Hectare (Rs.) (x-y)

378000

100339

277661

 

Green Cantaloupe is 180-day crop and starts to harvest from 100-105th day after sowing of seeds. The total sales average around 378000 Rupees and cost per hectare for cultivation averages to 100339 Rupees. Hence a total profit per hectare averages around 277661 Rupees Per Hectare.

 

 

 

RESULT AND CONCLUSION:

From the analysis, the cultivation of exotic fruit and vegetable is profitable. However, the cultivation of these exotic fruit and vegetable is a tedious task and demands for an initial heavy inflow of money, which is mostly needed in form of cash. Once sustained the exotic vegetables produce better profit than conventional crops. The two crops analysed in this study is zucchini which yielded a profit of 2.2Lakhs and Green Cantaloupe which yielded a profit of 2. 7 Lakhs. The wholesale price of these crops always remains the same as there is no heavy competition among cultivators of these crops. The Crops are in demand while their availability is limited hence a healthy whole sale price is always maintained. The second advantage of these crops is that the farmer reaches the breakeven point with ease, on the contrary conventional crops such as tomato may fetch a price of 1 Rupee per kilogram in the wholesale market hence farmers are not even able to reach the breakeven point.

 

REFERENCES:

1.     Amarnath, J. and Sridhar, V., 2012. An Economic Analysis of Organic Farming in Tamil Nadu, India. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture Economics, 1(2), pp. 33-51.

2.     Chandrakar, N., 2011. Chhattisgarh Inside Study. 1st ed. Raipur: Arihant.

3.     Charyulu, D. and Biswas, S., 2010. Economic and Efficiency of Organic Farming vis-a-vis Conventional Farming in India. Indian Institue of Management Ahmedabad-Research and Publications, 1(1), pp. 1-10.

4.     DeBoer, J. L., 2005. Economic Analysis of Precision Farming. Journal of Economic and Agricuture Research, 1(1), pp. 1-8.

5.     European Commission, 2013. Organic versus conventional farming, which performs better financially, 4: 4.

 

 

 

Received on 19.01.2017

Modified on 15.02.2017

Accepted on 16.03.2017

© A&V Publication all right reserved

Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 8(1): January - March, 2017, 89-81.

DOI: †10.5958/2321-5828.2017.00013.4